Working capital is one of the most difficult financial concepts for the small-business owner to understand. The term means a lot of different things to a lot of different people. By definition, working capital is the amount by which current assets exceed current liabilities. However, if you run this calculation each period to try to analyze working capital, you won’t accomplish much in figuring out what your working capital needs are and how to meet them.
A more useful tool for determining your working capital needs is the operating cycle. The operating cycle analyzes the inventory, accounts receivable and accounts payable cycles in terms of days. In other words, accounts receivable are analyzed by the average number of days it takes to get an account. Inventory is observed by the average number of days it takes to turn over the sale of a product. Accounts payable are analyzed by the average number of days it takes to pay a supplier invoice.
Most businesses cannot finance the operating cycle (accounts receivable days + inventory days) with accounts payable financing alone. However, working capital financing is needed. This shortfall is typically covered by the net profits generated internally or by externally borrowed funds or by a combination of the two.
Most businesses need short-term working capital at some point in their operations. For instance, retailers must find working capital to fund seasonal inventory buildup between September and November for sales during Christmas. But even a business that is not seasonal experiences peak months when orders are unusually high. This creates a need for working capital to fund the resulting inventory and accounts receivable buildup.
Some small businesses have enough cash reserves to fund seasonal working capital needs. However, this is very rare for a new company. If your new venture needs for short-term working capital during its first few years of operation, you will have multiple sources of funding. The important thing is to plan ahead. If you get caught off guard, you might miss out on the one large order that could put your business over the hump.
Here are the five sources of short-term working capital financing:
- Equity. If your business is in its first year of operation and has not yet become profitable, then you might have to rely on equity funds for short-term working capital necessities. These funds might be inserted from your own personal resources or from a family member, a friend or a third-party investor.
- Trade creditors. If you have a particularly good relationship established with your trade creditors, you might be able to ask for their help in providing short-term working capital. If you have paid on time in the past, a trade creditor may be content to extend terms to enable you to meet a big order. For instance, if you receive a big order that you can complete, ship out and collect at the end of 60 days, you could obtain 60-day terms from your supplier if 30-day terms are normally given. The trade creditor will want evidence of the order and may want to file a lien on it as security, but if it enables you to proceed.
- Factoring. Factoring is another resource for short-term working capital financing. Once you have filled an order, a company buys your account receivable and then handles the collection. This type of financing is more expensive than conventional bank financing but is often used by new businesses.
- Line of credit. Lines of credit are not often given by banks to new businesses. However, if your new business is well-capitalized by equity and you have good collateral, your business might qualify. A line of credit allows you to borrow funds for short-term needs when they occur. The funds are paid once you collect the accounts receivable that resulted from the short-term sales peak. Lines of credit normally are made for one year at a time and are expected to be paid off for 30 to 60 consecutive days sometime during the year to ensure that the funds are used for short-term needs only.
- Short-term loan. While your new business may not qualify for a line of credit from a bank, you might have success in obtaining a one-time short-term loan (less than a year) to finance your temporary working capital needs. If you have established a relationship with a banker, he or she might be willing to provide a short-term note for one order or for a seasonal inventory and/or accounts receivable buildup.
In addition to analyzing the average number of days it takes to make a product (inventory days) and collect on an account vs. the number of days financed by accounts payable, the operating cycle analysis provides one other important analysis.
You can see that working capital has a direct impact on cash flow in a business. Since cash flow is the name of the game for all business owners, a good understanding of working capital is imperative to making any venture successful.